Curcuma longa L.
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is native to Asia and India. The tuberous rhizomes or underground stems of turmeric have been used from antiquity as condiments, a dye and as an aromatic stimulant in several medicines. Turmeric is very important spice in India, which produces nearly entire whole world’s crop and consumes 80% of it. India is by far the largest producer and exporter of turmeric in the world. Turmeric occupies about 6% of the total area under spices and condiments in India.
Commercially grown varieties
There are about 30 turmeric varieties grown in India. Among them Alleppey and Madras (Perianadan) are of great commercial importance. Some of the improved varieties are: CO-11983, BSR-11986, Krishna, Roma, Suroma, Ranga, Rasmi, Megha Turmeric-1, Suguna, Sudarshana, Suranjana, Duggirala, Kodur, Suvarna, Varna, IISR Prabha, IISR Pratibha, Rajendra Sonia etc.
Measures for enhancing competitiveness in exports
As far as turmeric is concerned, India is in dominant position; however, it has to maintain its position with other future competitors like Indonesia, China, etc.
India must enhance its product quality, cleanliness of fingers, etc.
India must also improve total productivity to remain in dominant position, so that it continues to supply at most competitive prices. For this, the area under high yielding cultivars needs to be increased by supplying micro tubers multiplied through tissue culture.
Criteria and description of grades